Education is the basic and most influential part of human self-development. Education is the most important aspect in people’s lives. The quality and type of the education shape the future of any individual. Parents of any child insist on his/her child to get a good education. Governments of the countries also want to improve the education level of their citizens because when people are educated it results in a better economic condition and social life.
As the countries are graded according to their human force, the education level of the citizens plays an important role for any country. If the education level of any country is high, then the economic consequences would be positive as well. This is why the governments pays for the education systems of states. In addition to amount of funds given to the education system the management techniques of the states affect the quality of the education. For instance, Turkish and American education systems differs in their structure due to the management techniques and amount of fund allocated. In the following passages, I want to compare American education system with Turkish education system in terms of their effectiveness.
Contemporary Turkish education system was reformed during the establishment of the Republic of Turkey on 29th of October in 1923. The education system was formed during that times were on the way of reaching a modern civilization level. The reforms of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk affected the Turkish Education system. The education system is governed from a single management point called as ministry of education of Republic of Turkey. In contrary, education system in America differs from the system of Turkey; State and Local government took over the education. Every State has their own education systems. Therefore, there are a lot of different kinds of education systems. “The US has the most diversified education system in the world, with public and private schools (‘school’ usually refers to everything from kindergarten to university) at all levels flourishing alongside each other’’(“Introduction of education”). The effectiveness of the education differs as a result of the structure of the education systems of both Turkey and United States.
The decentralized education system increases the diversification and increases the competitiveness between the schools. Therefore, from the viewpoint of effectiveness American education is more effective when we consider the competitiveness. On the other hand, Turkish education system is more centralized, the students from different cities have common curriculum to learn, therefore there is a standard education throughout of Turkey. This condition increases the control capability of the central management. New subjects are easily added to the curriculum without losing any time and this increases the education effectiveness.
In Turkey, education system is divided in four stages. Firstly, children attend to kindergarten. After kindergarten, it is a mandatory in Turkey to attend an 8-year primary education. After the primary school, it is optional for the students to attend to high school education, then they attend to higher school (universities). Unlike Turkish education system, American education system is divided in three main groups. At the beginning, students attend nursery schools. Secondly, they attend primary school (It is compulsory). Then they attend to secondary school education. And finally they attend to higher education.
Nursery school is the first step in Turkish education system. Children start their education at their early ages of five years old. This stage is not an obligation. Children learn basic abilities and skills during this stage. Nursery schools in America is not compulsory similar to system in Turkey. Nursery schools aim to teach children elementary basics in American education system. Surveys conducted in some countries (including the US) has shown that children who attend pre-school usually progress at a faster rate than those who do not. In addition to this, in both of the education system, nursery school education improves the learning capacities of children. So, in this stage both Turkish and American education systems can be considered as efficient.
Primary school is compulsory education both for Turkey and America. Both of the educational systems aim to impersonate to students and to make them gain a positive attitude. But, there are a few differences. In Turkey, primary education include age of six and fourteen stages. On the contrary, in America this step starts at six years old but finishes at twelve years old. In addition to this difference, in Turkey students must wear uniform, but in America it is not compulsory. In America students can wear whatever they want. It is efficient because if students wear normal clothes, they will listen the lesson in a comfortable situation. In this situation they can learn everything easily.
After the primary school education both education systems have high school education. In Turkey high school education generally lasts four years. At first year, students are educated in preparation class. Students start normal class after completing the preparation school in Turkey. In higher education students can choose a branch what they want to do in their higher education. In America, high school education lasts seven years. Virtually their aim are the same. Both of them aim to give to the students some abilities of professionals. In both of these education systems student must obtain high school diploma before attending to university. In this stage, American and Turkish education systems are considered efficient.
When students finish these education steps, they can attend to universities. In most of the universities in Turkey, English is taught as a second language. However, in United States preparation schools are not as common as the ones in Turkey because students who live in US already know English naturally as a native language. As a result, the education system in USA is more effective than in Turkey. The students in Turkish education system lose one-year period. The students in Turkey have to enter to the university entrance examination in order to enroll to a university. The placement of the students to the universities are conducted centrally. This increases the controlling capability of the government over the higher education. However, in USA students can apply to universities by themselves. They have to get some scores in many exams such as SAT, GRE, TOEFL and etc. Therefore being enrolling to a university is more effective in Turkey than USA.
In conclusion, education system is very important. America and Turkey have their own educational systems. Their goals are to educate children according to their aims such as teaching basic abilities and improving the skills of students. Sometimes these aims are different, sometimes similar. America has more efficient system than Turkey in many sides. Because in America there are many ways to attend education and students can choose whatever they want. But, it is a fact that the best important thing is educate children very well. Every education system should answer their children needs. Because of the country’s future, every government should take care of their generations.